Home > ICND2 – Frame Relay

ICND2 – Frame Relay

May 11th, 2015 in ICND2 200-101 Go to comments

If you are not sure about Frame Relay, please read my Frame Relay tutorial.

Question 1


SPLIT HORIZON: A router never sends information about a route back in same direction which is original information came, routers keep track of where the information about a route came from. Means when router A sends update to router B about any failure network, router B does not send any update for same network to router A in same direction.

Therefore in order to resolve split-horizon issue, we can create a full-mesh topology (a network topology in which there is a direct link between all pairs of nodes) so that all the routers can learn all the routes advertised by the neighbors -> B is correct.

Configuring Point-to-point subinterfaces is a good way to resolve the split-horizon issue because each subinterface is treated as a separate interface so an interface can send and receive information about a route -> D is correct.

Question 2


Cisco supports two Frame Relay encapsulation types: the Cisco encapsulation and the IETF Frame Relay encapsulation, which is in conformance with RFC 1490 and RFC 2427. The former is often used to connect two Cisco routers while the latter is used to connect a Cisco router to a non-Cisco router. You can test with your Cisco router when typing the command Router(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay ? on a WAN link. Below is the output of this command (notice Cisco is the default encapsulation so it is not listed here, just press Enter to use it).


Note: Three LMI options are supported by Cisco routers are ansi, Cisco, and Q933a. They represent the ANSI Annex D, Cisco, and ITU Q933-A (Annex A) LMI types, respectively.

HDLC is a WAN protocol same as Frame-Relay and PPP so it is not a Frame Relay encapsulation type.

Question 3

Question 4


This command is described in detail at http://www.9tut.com/frame-relay-tutorial/2. If you don’t get this question please read it.

Question 5


When configuring on a point-to-point subinterface, the command frame-relay interface-dlci associates the selected point-to-point subinterface with a DLCI. But remember that the DLCI number in this command is the local DLCI. An example of using this command is shown below:

R1(config)#interface Serial0/0.1 point-to-point
R1(config-subif)#ip address
R1(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 1

Question 6


An example of the output of “show frame-relay map” command is shown below:


We can see the IP address is associated with the DLCI 100.

Question 7


Committed information rate (CIR): The minimum guaranteed data transfer rate agreed to by the Frame Relay switch. Frames that are sent in excess of the CIR are marked as discard eligible (DE) which means they can be dropped if the congestion occurs within the Frame Relay network.

Note: In the Frame Relay frame format, there is a bit called Discard eligible (DE) bit that is used to identify frames that are first to be dropped when the CIR is exceeded.

Question 8

Question 9


A main advantage of configuring Frame Relay multipoint compared to point-to-point subinterfaces is we can assign IP addresses on the same subnets/networks to the interfaces of Frame Relay switch, thus saving the subnets/networks you have.

Question 10


The “show frame-relay map” command displays the current map entries and information about the connections, including encapsulation type.

You can check Table 33 in the following link: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/12_2/wan/command/reference/wrffr4.html#wp1029343

It clearly states there is a Field which can be Cisco or IETF, which “indicates the encapsulation type for this map”. We quote that Table 33 here for your quick reference (you will see what we want to imply in bold):

Field Description
Serial 1 (administratively down) Identifies a Frame Relay interface and its status (up or down).
ip Destination IP address.
dlci 177 (0xB1,0x2C10)     
DLCI that identifies the logical connection being used to reach this interface. This value is displayed in three ways: its decimal value (177), its hexadecimal value (0xB1), and its value as it would appear on the wire (0x2C10).
static Indicates whether this is a static or dynamic entry.
CISCO Indicates the encapsulation type for this map; either CISCO or IETF.
TCP/IP Header Compression (inherited), passive (inherited) Indicates whether the TCP/IP header compression characteristics were inherited from the interface or were explicitly configured for the IP map.

The “show frame-relay lmi” gives us information about the LMI encapsulation type used by the Frame Relay interface, which can be ANSI, CISCO or Q933a. Therefore it is not what the question requires (CISCO or IETF).


Comments (49) Comments
  1. if_only_i_had_one
    November 4th, 2013

    Question 10 Answer should be A. Your Explanation is correct so just a typo there.

  2. 9tut
    November 6th, 2013

    @if_only_i_had_one: Thanks for your detection. We updated it!

  3. g00ber
    January 12th, 2014

    1, 4, 5 or 6..were on exam two days ago…

  4. part2 someday
    February 27th, 2014

    Found this for helping with troubleshooting: Frame-Relay


  5. mike
    April 14th, 2014

    Took ICND2 earlier today, 986 / 1000.

    Questions 1, 4, 5, 6, from this page were on there.

  6. fez
    May 8th, 2014

    1,4,5,6,8 were there

    Passed today 1000. Got different configuration of the Eigrp & frame Relay labs where there were different DLCIs and IP addresses, but same process was used to get answers (show commands, show ip protocols, show ip interface brief ).

    A question about GLBP and a question about netflow were on my test. You can find them here: http://www.examtut.com/2013/09/new-questions-in-ccna-200-120-hsrp-vrrp.html

    Study 9tut and this guy i found him really helpful. He has unique way of teaching http://www.danscourses.com If you can do all his videos again and again. Trust me you will get the concept. Also one thing i learned today is if you don’t know the concept it’ll be hard for you in the exam.

    All the best to every one in their path. Keep me in your good wishes.

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    May 29th, 2014

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  8. scared
    June 4th, 2014

    I took my ICND2 last week for the first time and failed it with a 786. I’m glad I found this site. I’m afraid to take it again as I don’t want to fail it again 🙁

  9. izzarazzu
    June 15th, 2014

    In Question 3, why not D? can anyone give an explanation?

  10. kweh
    June 17th, 2014


    I think it’s just one of those tricky questions in that the question asks for characteristics (specific to the configuration) of the p2p subinterfaces, and not about their implementation. B and C are always true, whereas a full mesh topology does not always require subinterfaces (there might only be one frame relay link needed to run the topology).

  11. izzarazzu
    June 27th, 2014

    Took the exam today. Pass 986/1000. Q1, Q3, Q5, Q6, Q8 were on there.
    Thanks 9tut.

  12. SDbeachbum
    August 11th, 2014

    Question 3 states that “two characteristics of Frame Relay point-to-point subinterfaces” should be:

    B. They require a unique subnet within a routing domain.
    C. They emulate leased lines.

    but when I took quiz #6, question 12 worded the exact same way said the answers should be:

    They emulate leased lines
    They are ideal for full mesh topologies

    Please clarify.

  13. Ant
    August 20th, 2014

    Tested today, 8/20. #5, 6 were on there.

  14. josh
    September 3rd, 2014

    need help on a question I have seen several times and can’t seem to get it right:

    If required, what password should be configured on the DeepSouth router in the branch office to
    allow a connection to be established with the MidEast router?
    A. No password is required.
    B. Enable
    C. Secret
    D. Telnet
    E. Console

    the output from the show command show all the interfaces, with respective encapsulations, the router that is being referenced is PPP, and at the bottom or the output is the vty password tinet. the answer is B- ENABLE.


  15. josh
    September 3rd, 2014

    guess what, I think I found it but would appreciate some more expounding on the subject: the enable password is what is used as “default” when not specified/

  16. josh
    September 3rd, 2014

    I FOUND IT!!! http://www.9tut.net/icnd2/icnd2-labsim/frame-relay-sim#more-487

    command sh run: if ppp: the username and password will be listed at the top of the output; if default=HDLC, no password required: pay attention to the port connection, to find out which router they are asking for in the sh run output. phew, this Q came up on both the ICND 1 AND 2. I know that I got it wrong previously. its been HAUNTING ME!!!

  17. asen
    September 13th, 2014

    i pass exam ago 2 month but came certificate me i dont known how i do it please help

  18. Georges
    September 27th, 2014

    took the exam today and pass with 907. Question 5, 6 and 9 were on there, the others werent. location United States Florida.

    test ICND 2

    Thanks 9tut

  19. N8
    September 30th, 2014

    Took ICND2 today 986/100. 1 4 5 6 7 8 & 9 were on there. Thanks 9TUT

  20. question on the password again
    October 14th, 2014

    If required, what password should be configured on the DeepSouth router in the branch office to
    allow a connection to be established with the MidEast router?
    A. No password is required.
    B. Enable
    C. Secret
    D. Telnet
    E. Console

    the output from the show command show all the interfaces, with respective encapsulations, the router that is being referenced is PPP, and at the bottom or the output is the vty password tinet. the answer is B- ENABLE.


    went to a friend who has an advanced cisco cert, and with his help analyzing this, the answer seems to be, NO PASSWORD REQUIRED. due to the fact that in the show run output, the interface has ppp listed as the encapsulation however, there is NO COMMAND accompanying that encapsulation such as “authentication ppp pap or ppp chap. therefore, since there is no authentication command, which will then require each router to verify its credentials, no password is required. can or will anyone else confirm this?

  21. abdo
    October 31st, 2014

    i think the answer for question 10 is wrong. the answer should be
    C. show inter serial

  22. Anonymous
    December 10th, 2014

    Regarding Question 10 :
    When I prompted the command “show frame-relay map”, I do not see anything showing “encapsulation type” for a frame relay link.
    #show frame-relay map
    Serial0/0.102 (up): point-to-point dlci, dlci 102(0x66,0x1860), broadcast
    status defined, active
    Serial0/0.103 (up): point-to-point dlci, dlci 103(0x67,0x1870), broadcast
    status defined, active

    I think is a kind a tricky question. But if you prompted the command “show interface {interface number} you shoul see the encapsulation type. for instance:
    #show interface s0/0
    Serial0/0 is up, line protocol is up
    Hardware is GT96K Serial
    MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec,
    reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
    Encapsulation FRAME-RELAY IETF, loopback not set
    Keepalive set (10 sec)
    LMI enq sent 665, LMI stat recvd 628, LMI upd recvd 0, DTE LMI up
    ……suppressed ……..

    So, I think the option “C.interface serial” is not valid yet because it does not specify the serial number. Likewise, the option “B.show frame-relay lmi is not correct”. Why?, because it provides information about the “LMI” not encapsulation type.

    I think the answer should be the command: show interface serial {serial #}, for instance,
    “show interface serial 0/0” which is not included in the answers.

  23. serg
    December 18th, 2014

    to Anonymous December 10th, 2014:

    R3#show frame-relay map
    Serial0/3/0 (up): ip dlci 302, dynamic,
    IETF, status defined, active
    Serial0/3/0 (up): ip dlci 301, dynamic,
    IETF, status defined, active
    R3#sh int s0/3/0
    Serial0/3/0 is up, line protocol is up (connected)
    Hardware is HD64570
    Internet address is
    MTU 1500 bytes, BW 1544 Kbit, DLY 20000 usec,
    reliability 255/255, txload 1/255, rxload 1/255
    Encapsulation Frame Relay, loopback not set, keepalive set (10 sec)
    LMI enq sent 13, LMI stat recvd 11, LMI upd recvd 0, DTE LMI up
    LMI enq recvd 0, LMI stat sent 0, LMI upd sent 0
    LMI DLCI 1023 LMI type is CISCO frame relay DTE

    A. show frame-relay map —- is correct

  24. serg
    December 18th, 2014

    I want to note IOS version on my router 15 and exam questions about the 15 version

  25. Jp
    December 21st, 2014

    Q3 and q8 on my exam today

  26. Anonymous
    January 7th, 2015

    Answer to Q10 is A,

    Take a look and compare a dynamic map and static map.

    R3#show frame-relay map
    Serial0/0 (up): ip dlci 201(0xC9,0x3090), dynamic,
    broadcast,, status defined, active
    Serial0/0 (up): ip dlci 201(0xC9,0x3090), static,
    CISCO, status defined, active

    on this output yo can see that the static map is using CISCO encapsulation, the absence of an encapsulation name on the dynamic map indicates that is using the default one, IETF.

    “show frame-relay map” is the correct one

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    March 3rd, 2015

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    March 10th, 2015

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  29. barney
    March 20th, 2015

    passed on 3/13. question 6 on it. tks 9tut

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    May 2nd, 2015

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  31. Marco
    May 13th, 2015

    I got Q5, Q6, Q9 today in the ICND2 exam.
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  32. Gaspro
    May 30th, 2015

    I agree with you, Q3 answer should be C&D in my opinion, anyone can please clarify ?

    Question 3

    What are two characteristics of Frame Relay point-to-point subinterfaces? (Choose two)

    A. They create split-horizon issues.
    B. They require a unique subnet within a routing domain.
    C. They emulate leased lines.
    D. They are ideal for full-mesh topologies.
    E. They require the use of NBMA options when using OSPF.

    Answer: B C

    Please someone explain…

  33. maria
    May 31st, 2015

    This is very help full.any body can pass if the person give time to study

  34. Anonymous2
    June 5th, 2015

    Point-To-Point subinterfaces are used for partial mesh topologies, which have separate access links between each pair of routers logically. Physically, there is only one link, from the router to the frame relay switch. Since each access link acts as a separate interface, they must have different subnets. Each subinterface is associated to separate access links, and are why they need separate subnets.

    Another way to think about this is that a point-to-point link only connects two devices, in the instance of frame relay 2 routers. Physically, each router have one link to their respective frame-relay switches. Logically, there is a link between each router to a central one (remember that this is a partial topology, not full). Each link would require separate subinterfaces, and since the logical links are separate, they would require different subnets.

    The frame-relay concept chapter in the icnd2 handbook further explains the differences between the topologies and probably give a far better explanation.

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    June 22nd, 2015

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  37. Tru_Blu
    June 30th, 2015

    Anonymous made some comments regarding Question 10 that should be clarified. The answer to Question 10 is correct, as he stated in his comments. However, all should know that the default encapsulation type for Frame Relay is CISCO, not IETF.

    If you do not see an encapsulation type listed in the “show frame-relay map” output, then it is using the default encapsulation type of CISCO. If a connection is using an IETF encapsulation (required when connecting to a non-Cisco device), then it will be specifically listed in the command output (as provided in Serg’s example above). Encapsulation CISCO can also be listed in the command output if it was statically assigned in the interface’s configuration.

    Keys to remember for this question:
    1. Show Frame-Relay Map will give you the encapsulation type for a Frame Relay connection
    2. If no encapsulation is shown, then it is using the default type of CISCO
    3. If using IETF, it will be listed in the command output

  38. Ghost
    July 1st, 2015

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  39. Anne Normous
    July 1st, 2015

    Just took the test today – 980/1000 Questions 4 and 6 were from this page. Thanks 9tuts! Also got Frame Relay, EIGRP and OSPF labs- a lot of OSPF & quite a few EIGRP questions!

  40. GCert
    July 3rd, 2015

    Question 4… why isn’t the answer “A”? I thought the “broadcast” keyword allowed broadcast traffic (ie. for OSPF and other routing protocols etc) to travel to the destination identified by the DLCI.


    States: Enter the broadcast keyword to allow the specified DLCI to forward broadcast and multicast packets. This can reduce the complexity of running dynamic routing protocols such as OSPF (which uses multicast updates) over Frame Relay.

    Am I interpreting it wrong for this question?

  41. GCert
    July 3rd, 2015

    Really not sure now since http://www.9tut.net/category/icnd2-200-101 Question 1 has three answers… one of them being “E. broadcast indicates that a dynamic routing protocol such as RIP v1 can send packets across this PVC”

  42. 9tut
    July 13th, 2015

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  43. Router_On_a_Stick
    July 28th, 2015

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  44. Justme
    September 10th, 2015

    @GCert the question is tricky–it sez broadcast packets. D is correct

  45. Hilda
    December 15th, 2015

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    December 15th, 2015

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  47. Eso
    June 26th, 2016

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  48. Ieat Itnoobs
    July 8th, 2016

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