ICND2 – OSPF Questions
Note: If you are not sure about OSPF, please read my OSPF tutorial first.
First, notice that the more-specific routes will always be favored over less-specific routes regardless of the administrative distance set for a protocol. In this case, because we use OSPF for three networks (172.16.100.0 0.0.0.3, 172.16.100.64 0.0.0.63, 172.16.100.128 0.0.0.31) so the packets destined for these networks will not be affected by the default route.
The default route configured on R1 “ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 serial0/0″ will send any packet whose destination network is not referenced in the routing table of router R1 to R2, it doesn’t drop anything so answers A, B and C are not correct. D is not correct too because these routes are declared in R1 and the question says that “OSPF has been correctly configured on router R2″, so network directly connected to router R2 can communicate with those three subnetworks.
As said above, the default route configured on R1 will send any packet destined for a network that is not referenced in its routing table to R2; R2 in turn sends it to R1 because it is the only way and a routing loop will occur.
Link-state protocol uses hello packets to discover neighbors and establish adjacencies. After that, the routers begin sending out LSAs to every neighbor (each received LSA is copied and forwarded to every neighbor except the one that sent the LSA)
The Administrative Distances (AD) of popular routing protocols are listed below:
Router_E learns two subnets subnets 18.104.22.168 and 22.214.171.124 via Router_A through FastEthernet interface. The interface cost is calculated with the formula 108 / Bandwidth. For FastEthernet it is 108 / 100 Mbps = 108 / 100,000,000 = 1. Therefore the cost is 12 (learned from Router_A) + 1 = 13 for both subnets -> B is not correct.
The cost through T1 link is much higher than through T3 link (T1 cost = 108 / 1.544 Mbps = 64; T3 cost = 108 / 45 Mbps = 2) so surely OSPF will choose the path through T3 link -> Router_E will choose the path from Router_A through FastEthernet0/0, not Serial1/0 -> C & D are not correct.
In fact, we can quickly eliminate answers B, C and D because they contain at least one subnet learned from Serial1/0 -> they are surely incorrect.
OSPF is a link-state routing protocol so it converges more quickly than distance-vector protocol. OSPF uses cost to determine the best route. The popular formula to calculate OSPF cost is: cost = 108 / Bandwidth [ in kbps] (in fact the formal formula is: cost = reference bandwidth / configured bandwidth of interface in kbps. On Cisco routers, the reference bandwidth defaults to 100000 kbps)
There are 2 segments on the topology above which are separated by Corp-3 router. Each segment will have a DR so we have 2 DRs.
To select which router will become DR they will compare their router-IDs. The router with highest (best) router-ID will become DR. The router-ID is chosen in the order below:
+ The highest IP address assigned to a loopback (logical) interface.
+ If a loopback interface is not defined, the highest IP address of all active router’s physical interfaces will be chosen.
In this question, the IP addresses of loopback interfaces are not mentioned so we will consider IP addresses of all active router’s physical interfaces. Router Corp-4 (10.1.40.40) & Branch-2 (10.2.20.20) have highest “active” IP addresses so they will become DRs.
The well-known formula to calculate OSPF cost is
Cost = 108 / Bandwidth
so B is the correct answer.
The default-information originate command advertises a default route to other routers, telling something like “please send me your unknown traffic”. So in this case, besides a full routing table, R2 will also receive a default route from R1 -> B is correct.
Note: But in this question, the static route should be “ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 serial0/1″ (not serial0/0), that may cause a routing loop.
In the router ospf command, the ranges from 1 to 65535 so o is an invalid number -> B is correct but A is not correct.